Sunday, 27 November 2016

Post 448 - Many Marvellous Moths from my garden

Burnished Brass moth (Diachrysia chrysitis)
Hey everyone today's post 448 and you'll all know that I love all types of animal and plant in general, in fact all types of nature. So from that you'll know that I like moths. Well this year I was really lucky to get a moth trap (thanks again Barry) and it has been great fun to use. I love getting it all set up, placing all of the egg trays inside and then switching it on and wondering what I'll find in it in the morning.

It's not just moths I find! I caught lots of other insects
too including this Chafer Beetle.
I have caught so many things in it, just in my garden! Bearing in mind I don't yet have a mercury vapour light which apparently gives you twice the amount of moths. I think I've done quite well! In all I've recorded 95 different species of moth. I was lucky to get a lot of help confirming identifications from Jill Warwick so thanks very much for all the help Jill.

Thinking off the top of my head, I can remember I've caught a few Hawkmoths, Emerald Moths, Setaceous Hebrew Character, Snout, Shark, Blue Bordered Carpet and lots more. The full list is at the end of the blog for anyone wondering what else I've caught.

Poplar Hawk Moth (Laothoe populi) posing on Dad's finger
I thought I would also do some facts on one of my favourite Hawk Moths that I have ever seen, the Poplar Hawk Moth!

  • The Poplar Hawk Moth is probably the most common of our Hawkmoths, which is why some people have nicknamed it the Popular Hawk Moth!
  • You can find them across most of the UK - looking at the map of their distribution the most northerly one looks to be recorded in Fair Isle.
  • They're found in a variety of habitats including gardens, woodlands, fens, moorland and heathland.
    Another hawk moth from the garden
    Elephant Hawk Moth (Deilephila elpenor)
  • When at rest, it looks different to a lot of other moths, It rests with its wings out and its lower abdomen sticking up.
  • They are one of the largest moths I've found in my garden, its wingspan is between 65-90mm.
  • This moth is usually on the wing between May and July and is quite a common visitor to light and moth traps.
  • It probably gets its name from the fact that larvae feed on Poplar, but they also feed on Aspen and Sallow.
The Miller (Acronicta leporina)
  • If startled it can uncover and flash parts of the hindwing which are a reddy or rufous colour which can startle a predator.
  • They eat very little if anything as adults, they are on a mission to find a mate and ensure they breed and lay eggs.

Ruby Tiger (Phragmatobia fuliginosa)
Recently I haven't been doing much moth trapping, but I'm going to see if it's worth doing one or two more sessions within the year to see what's usually about in Winter and see if I can get up to 100 species this year!

Blue Bordered Carpet (Plemyria rubiginata)
I also like photographing moths, but sometimes this proves to be a challenge. I have included some of my favourite pictures that I've managed to get of my garden moths here. I've seen moths in other places too whilst I've been doing my Yorkshire Reserves Challange this year and I've included photos of some of these in my calendar that I've put together and has been selling for a while. If you'd like one they're being sold through the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Shop. They're also selling at Potteric Carr Nature Reserve so if you're going on a day out there (which I highly recommend) then you can get one there. Any profits made from my calendars will be split equally with the Wildlife Trusts, with any money I get going towards my nature antics. I will probably be putting it towards a brand new lens for my camera, either macro or long distance so I can get better photos of everything.

Well, that's it for this post, I'll try and do another one in the week because I haven't posted as regularly as I'd like too.

Hope you enjoyed,


Brimstone (Opisthograptis luteolata)

My 2016 Garden Moth List:

Latin Name (Taxon)
Common Name
Abraxas grossulariata
Magpie Moth
Abrostola tripartita
Acleris laterana/comariana

Acleris variegana
Garden Rose Tortrix
Acronicta leporina
Agapeta hamana

Agrochola litura
Brown-spot Pinion
Agrochola lychnidis
Beaded Chestnut
Agrotis exclamationis
Heart and Dart
Alcis repandata
Mottled Beauty
Apamea monoglypha
Dark Arches
Aphomia sociella
Bee Moth
Autographa gamma
Silver Y
Axylia putris
Batia unitella

Blastobasis adustella

Cabera pusaria
Common White Wave
Catoptria falsella

Celypha lacunana

Celypha striana

Chloroclysta siterata
Red-green Carpet
Chloroclysta truncata
Common Marbled Carpet
Chrysoteuchia culmella
Garden Grass-veneer
Cidaria fulvata
Barred Yellow
Clepsis consimilana

Cosmia trapezina
Crocallis elinguaria
Scalloped Oak
Cryphia domestica
Marbled Beauty
Cucullia umbratica
Cydia pomonella
Codling Moth
Deilephila elpenor
Elephant Hawk-moth
Diachrysia chrysitis
Burnished Brass
Dipleurina crataegella

Dipleurina lacustrata

Ditula angustiorana
Red-barred Tortrix
Eilema lurideola
Common Footman
Enarmonia formosana
Cherry Bark Moth
Epiphyas postvittana
Light Brown Apple Moth
Epirrhoe alternata
Common Carpet
Eudonia mercurella

Eulithis prunata
Eulithis pyraliata
Barred Straw
Eupithecia assimilata
Currant Pug
Eurrhypara hortulata
Small Magpie
Euzophera pinguis

Evergestis forficalis
Garden Pebble
Gymnoscelis rufifasciata
Double-striped Pug
Hedya nubiferana
Marbled Orchard Tortrix
Hepialus lupulinus
Common Swift
Hoplodrina alsines
Hydriomena furcata
July Highflyer
Hydriomena impluviata
May Highflyer
Hylaea fasciaria
Barred Red
Hypena proboscidalis
Idaea aversata
Riband Wave
Idaea aversata ab. remutata
Riband Wave [non-banded form]
Lycophotia porphyrea
True Lover's Knot
Melanchra persicariae
Dot Moth
Mesapamea secalis agg.
Common Rustic agg.
Mythimna ferrago
Mythimna impura
Smoky Wainscot
Mythimna pallens
Common Wainscot
Noctua janthe
Lesser Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing
Noctua pronuba
Large Yellow Underwing
Nola cucullatella
Short-cloaked Moth
Notodonta dromedarius
Iron Prominent
Oligia versicolor
Rufous Minor
Opisthograptis luteolata
Brimstone Moth
Orthosia cerasi
Common Quaker
Orthosia cruda
Small Quaker
Orthosia gothica
Hebrew Character
Orthosia incerta
Clouded Drab
Orthosia munda
Twin-spotted Quaker
Ourapteryx sambucaria
Swallow-tailed Moth
Pandemis heparana
Dark Fruit-tree Tortrix
Peribatodes rhomboidaria
Willow Beauty
Phalera bucephala
Phalonidia gilvicomana

Pheosia tremula
Swallow Prominent
Phlogophora meticulosa
Angle Shades
Phragmatobia fuliginosa
Ruby Tiger
Plemyria rubiginata
Blue-bordered Carpet
Pleuroptya ruralis
Mother of Pearl
Plutella xylostella
Diamond-back Moth
Pterostoma palpina
Pale Prominent
Ptilodon capucina
Coxcomb Prominent
Rhopobota naevana
Holly Tortrix
Selenia dentaria
Early Thorn
Spilosoma luteum
Buff Ermine
Thera britannica
Spruce Carpet
Udea olivalis

Xanthorhoe montanata
Silver-ground Carpet
Xestia c-nigrum
Setaceous Hebrew Character
Xestia sexstrigata
Six-striped Rustic
Xylocampa areola
Early Grey

Sunday, 13 November 2016

Post 447 - Terrific Transformations in Awesome Autumn Colour changes

Autumn colour along the River Swale
Hey everyone, well post 447 today and I thought that with all of the wonderful autumn colours that I've been seeing that I would look at why and how trees move from the big green leafy structures they are in summer to the bare brown skeletons of winter.

My bonsai is looking good too
I don't know about where you are but here in Yorkshire the changes have been going on for quite a while and have been really slow and gentle so that every day the autumn colours have been getting better and better. We had a bit of snow earlier in the week but it didn't last long enough for me to get any photographs, but the autumn colours against the snow were awesome. I think it's about at its best now though as lots of leaves are falling and some trees are starting to look a bit bare.

Well I knew a bit about why leaves change colours but I thought I'd look at this again to see what I could find out. Here's what I found out:

Breaking down the chlorophyll

  • The first thing to say is that it is all to do with chlorophyll. This is the chemical in leaves which absorbs the energy from sunlight and uses it to make food, simple sugars or carbohydrates, from water and carbon dioxide.
  • As the days start to get shorter and the temperatures start to cool off, deciduous trees and plants start to prepare for winter.
  • Rather than just shutting down and dropping all their leaves they start to recover the chemicals and nutrients that are stored in the leaves.
    Sunlight through autumn leaves
  • They stop producing chlorophyll and break down the chlorophyll in their leaves into colourless compounds which they remove from the leaves and store in the branches and trunk.
  • As this happens you start to see other pigments that are in the leaves all the time but they get masked by the chlorophyll. Chlorophyll uses red and green light but reflects green light so leaves look green.
  • Weather can affect the colour changing process. Early frosts can disrupt the process that makes the red colour in some leaves like in maple. They make a chemical called anthocyanin which make them red. Some scientists think this acts as a sort of antifreeze to give the tree more time to remove valuable chemicals in the leaves.
    A few Greylags enjoying the autumn colour
    of Larches at Cod Beck
  • It is only deciduous trees that do this as coniferous trees have needles which are thicker and waterproof, protected by waxy coatings and natural compounds that prevent freezing so they can survive frost and winter temperatures. Needles do get replaced gradually though. 
  • Needles are less efficient at photosynthesis so the trees need them all year too to produce food. 
  • There is an interesting tree though around a lake where I walk a lot at Cod Beck, the Larch. This is a coniferous tree that is deciduous.
    Larch needles changing colour.
  • It seems they do this as they tend to live in places where there is lots of snow in winter. By not having needles snow and ice doesn't build up on their branches so much so they don't break under the weight.
  • As they can regrow their needles every season it also gives them the ability to survive forest fires.
Well that's more than I knew to start with and I always enjoy finding out what happens in all the processes that plants and animals go through.

Hope you enjoyed too.


Monday, 7 November 2016

Post 446 - Fundraising for Wonderful Wildlife Trust

Hey everyone,

Just a quick post today to let you all know about a little project that has been keeping me and Dad busy lately.

The front cover 
If you read my blog regularly you'll know that I've been trying to get to as many Yorkshire Wildlife Trust reserves as I can this year. I had hoped to get to them all but there are a lot and Yorkshire is very big! This year I've found out just how big and how long it takes Dad to drive us around. I won't manage them all this year but I do hope to get to a few more yet. I've really enjoyed it and I've found some wonderful places!

In the summer I had hoped to be going along to a fundraising walk for the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust. I wanted to help as I've loved seeing all the places they care for. Sadly I was too young this year. So instead as I started to think about putting a calendar together again, and wondered if it would be a good idea to share the proceeds with the YWT. Dad got in touch and they thought that was a pretty good idea too. They've been very helpful and are selling them through their webshop at the link below and at their flagship reserve at Potteric Carr if you can get there.

If you like my blogs and photos then I think you'll like it. I saved a few good photos and had to scan through loads of others to find some great ones to go in it. I'm very grateful to YWT for the help in selling it and for the lovely write up they've given me - (thanks Jono & Rich :-)

Me on my stand at the Big Bang Fair
I'm sharing any profits with YWT and I plan to use mine for one of two things. If we sell enough I hope to buy a better lens for my new camera so that I can take even better pictures. My new camera is a digital SLR, a Canon EOS 700D, which is great but needs new lenses for me to get better shots. Either that or I'll use it to help cover the costs of going to the Big Bang Fair final (a big science
festival) in March next year.

You might remember that I went to the local heats of the Big Bang Fair, this year and I won a couple of awards for my blog as well as a place in the national finals. Well the awards came with the prize of some shopping vouchers and that was how I got my new camera. Well for the finals they are asking contestants to raise money to cover the cost of attending. Most projects are team efforts so it must get expensive for the schools as it needs you to stay over for two nights, so it might be good to use the proceeds for that.

Before I can do either though the calendars need to be sold. Thanks to Mary Arnold that's starting to happen, thanks Mary for being buyer number 1!

Hopefully there's a few more readers of my blog that would like one too.

Thanks very much to everyone that does :-)

Hope you enjoy,


Sunday, 6 November 2016

Post 445 - Fabulously Fascinating Fungi - Part 4

Fly Agaric's and dewy cobwebs on a misty morning
Hey everyone, Post 445 today and I don't think I could let Autumn go by without a post on fungi. I've been seeing them around and about most places I've been and some are very pretty, They are great things to look out for when you're walking around this time of year.

A fungi cluster on a stump at Silton Forest
I've looked at fungi before, but I didn't realise how much until I had a search back through my blog! My first post on them was on Day 8 of my year of nature after a walk on the moors. I found some more at Fairburn Ings and included them in a post on Day 18 called Puffy and Fluffy.  A good while after that I came back to them and started to write about them as a species.  Day 321 - Fascinating Fungi Part 1 was about their biology, Day 330 - Fabulous Fungi - Part 2 - Useful Yeast! was about how useful one fungi is to us (and has some really cool pics in it) and Day 370 - Fabulously Fascinating Fungi Part 3 was about other uses of different fungi. I've covered particular species too like the Jelly ear fungus. I didn't realise just how much they have fascinated me!

Puffballs at Silton Forest
I've covered how life is pretty dependent on them - how the Mycelium is made up of lots of fine threads called Hyphae which secrete enzymes that break down dead plant material and how they can have a symbiotic relation with plants most of which rely on Mycorrhizal fungi around their roots to provide nutrients and water acting as an extension to their roots. The fungi get some sugars from the plants in exchange.

I've also found out how big they can be, probably the biggest living organism on earth  - a 2,384 acre area of a Honey Fungus Mycelium was found in Oregon, USA. It's estimated that it was 1,665 football fields large! That's a lot of mushroom!

So with all that what more could I find out about them?

Breaking down a log...
Well what I didn't realise is how ancient they are....

One was found to be 440 million years old! It was found fossilised and has been said to have 'kick started life of Earth' because it filled a gap of evolution by beginning to rot and break down the soil so that other plants could grow and so that the animals could come out of the sea and feed on these plants.

People have said it filled a gap and that around the time it existed pretty much all life was confined to the sea, apart from this. This fungi provides evidence that plants had colonised the land before any animals had left the sea.

This fungi is called Tortotubus and since they have mycelium that carries the nutrients around to the other parts of the fungi, the ground around it got some nutrients helping the Earth to become the lush green environment it is today.

A candelabra or coral fungus.
Nor did I know how old they can be...

I've talked about how ancient some forms of fungi are, but age is a different thing. Pretty much everyone knows about fairy rings, circles of mushrooms with a bit of mythology thrown over them. But what you might not know is that the bigger the circles are, the older it is! Fairy rings start as a spore and the mycelium grows out from this original spot. When they fruit, that is when we see the mushrooms and toadstools, you can see the area the mycelium covers. The older the fungus the further the mycelium spreads.

Remember the fungus I mentioned earlier, the one that covers 2,384 acres, well to get that big it must be at least 2.400 years old! It could be much older though and scientists think it might be as much as 8,650 years old!

So, that's altogether pretty amazing. They are the largest, probably the oldest (certainly one of the oldest) living things on earth and the first living organisms to populate dry land and without them we probably wouldn't exist!

Fungi can be amazing colours as well as everything else!
No wonder I find them so

Here are some links to some more information:

Scientific American - the largest organism on earth is a fungus

The Telegraph - Meet the 440-million-year-old Scottish fungus which kick-started the human race

Hope you enjoyed,


Tuesday, 1 November 2016

Post 444 - What I've learnt from the Grouse debate

Hey everyone, I was busy yesterday with my post on half term so I didn't get time to read about the debate on grouse shooting. So I decided to look today at what people were saying about it on social media. From what I have seen it doesn't seem to have been a very fair discussion. Lots of people seem really unhappy that the grouse moor owners and shooting organisation's side of the argument was the one that was mainly heard and that some of the evidence that was quoted wasn't right. Nature got a mention but the main things that people say were mentioned is that Gamekeepers are the saviours of our nature, that they work hard to conserve many species. I'm not sure that the Hen Harriers that hardly got a mention would agree with that...
It has been great as a young person to watch how this debate came about. I've seen all the hard work that a lot of people - Mark Avery in particular - have put in to get the debate to happen. I've learnt about making petitions and about writing to my MP. I've had some responses and I've learnt how my MP at least is quite good at not quite answering the question I ask. (I asked if he thought it was fair to give money to grouse moors for a few people to have a hobby when our local hospital needs funds to provide important services for lots of people).

I've learnt how wildlife charities and other people have to work very hard to do studies to show what is happening to nature in our moors. I've learnt how a lot of people ignore evidence if it doesn't suit them. I've learnt a lot about how our Government works. If it's always like this I learnt that I don't like it very much, that it doesn't seem very fair.

There are some things I don't understand though. Why do so many MP's support this hobby. It's a pretty horrible one when you just frighten birds towards a load of people waiting to shoot them. Why do we pay land owners to make the moors great for grouse but not for raptors? Why can't some moors at least be left to be more natural and wild to help Hen Harriers and other birds? Maybe they are but there can't be enough of them if we only have a few Hen Harriers managing to nest and raise young.

I tried to help a little bit by writing to my MP, by tweeting about the petition like lots of other people did. I think it is amazing how much people like Mark Avery and Chris Packham have worked on this and I'd like to say a big thank you to them. I'd also like to thank Caroline Lucas and Natalie Bennett for sticking up for nature.

 Another thing I've learnt is that you need to have a lot of energy and persistence to try and make changes happen and that I think it is more important than ever that we tell our Government and MP's how much we treasure nature and how we want them to protect it.

I saw what Mark was doing with the Grouse petition and I decided after the Brexit vote that I would start one asking the Government to look after nature when we leave the EU. Reading about the grouse debate has made me even more glad I did. I've got about two months left to go and I need just over 3,600 signatures to get a government response so I'm going to do my best to try and get one!

The petition is here if you want to sign it, I'd be very grateful if you did and so might our wildlife and future generations that enjoy it if we can get the message through to our Government.

Hope you enjoyed,